Conventional agriculture is implemented across approximately 75 per cent of the world’s agricultural land and has been linked to climate change and biodiversity loss. In contrast, regenerative agriculture focuses on practices that build soil fertility and improve ecosystem functioning to mitigate climate change and increase biodiversity. This review assesses how the regenerative practice of crop diversification influences soil fertility and crop productivity, pest control, water quality and climate-change mitigation. I take an Ecosystem Services Approach to assessing crop diversification, which is a form of natural resource management that considers the relationship between human and environmental needs. These ecosystem services are analysed within the Australian context to determine both current issues and potential opportunities in Australian agriculture. This review reveals that current methods of agriculture in Australia could be improved, and crop diversification offers a key opportunity for helping Australia ensure food security under future climate change. Further research on interspecies interactions is required to help classify the specific crops that provide beneficial ecosystem services in Australia.
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