Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention <p id="journal-tagline" class="lead"><strong>New Issue Out Now!</strong><br />Reinvention is an online, peer-reviewed journal, dedicated to the publication of high-quality undergraduate student research. The journal welcomes academic articles from all disciplinary areas and all universities.</p> en-US <p class="p-Cl1" style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;" align="left">Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing through any medium of communication those illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. Authors are also responsible for adding these permissions to the acknowledgement footnote that precedes all other notes or crediting the source and copyright of photographs or figures in the accompanying captions.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal's policy is to ask authors to grant us the licence to publish their work, which gives us the exclusive right both to reproduce and/or distribute their article (including the abstract) in printed, electronic or any other medium, and in turn to authorise others (including Reproduction Rights Organisations such as the Copyright Licensing Agency and the Copyright Clearance Center) to do the same. In return the author(s) assert their Moral Right to be identified as the author, and we promise that we will respect their rights as the author(s). That is, we will make sure that their name(s) is/are always clearly associated with the article and, while they do allow us to make necessary editorial changes, we will not make any substantial alteration to their article without consulting them.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">Copyright remains with the author(s), however, the author(s) authorise us to act on their behalf to defend their copyright if anyone should infringe it, and to retain half of any damages awarded, after deducting our costs. The author(s) also retain the right to use their own article (provided they acknowledge the published original in standard bibliographic citation form) in the following ways, as long as they do not sell it or give it away in ways which would conflict directly with our interests. The author(s) is/are free to use their article for the internal educational or other purposes of their own institution or company; mounted on their own or their institution’s website; posted to free public servers of preprints and/or articles in their subject area; or in whole or in part, as the basis for their own further publications or spoken presentations.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">If you have any queries about copyright please contact the Journal Coordinator, Fiona O'Brien, at <a style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #30818a; text-decoration: none;" href="mailto:F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk">F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk</a></p> reinventionjournal@warwick.ac.uk (Reinvention Journal Team) reinventionjournal@warwick.ac.uk (Reinvention Journal Team) Fri, 29 Apr 2022 15:01:43 +0100 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Reinvention: Innovation and Inclusion https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1170 Shreya Sridharan Copyright (c) 2022 Shreya Sridharan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1170 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 A Picture of Health: Art, Medicine & the Body – Needs More Room to Breathe https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1158 <p>Review of <em>A Picture of Health: Art, Medicine &amp; the Body</em> at the Leamington Spa Art Gallery &amp; Museum, Royal Pump Rooms in Leamington Spa, England.</p> Jess Adler Copyright (c) 2022 Jess Adler https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1158 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Appetite Control With Ageing https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/707 <p>The anorexia of ageing, a reduction in food intake with increased age, is associated with negative health outcomes such as sarcopenia frailty, cachexia morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological agents such as appetite stimulants have been a major focus to combat the anorexia of ageing; however, these medications are linked to various adverse side effects. Therefore, understanding the physiological causes of reduced appetite may lead to the creation of innovative intervention strategies in the ageing population. Current research has identified the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neuronal subsets of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) as the centre of appetite regulation. This review investigates the current understanding of appetite regulation and subsequent dysregulation with age, and the age-associated changes in the anorectic (appetite-suppression) and orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) pathways, thereby implicating the POMC and AgRP neurons. It primarily investigates the physiological changes underlying appetite reduction with ageing to orient future interventions to combat the anorexia of ageing.</p> Adam Paul Plotkin Copyright (c) 2022 Adam Paul Plotkin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/707 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Efficacy of the Ecosystem Services Approach in Transitioning to Regenerative Agriculture in Australia https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/718 <p>Conventional agriculture is implemented across approximately 75 per cent of the world’s agricultural land and has been linked to climate change and biodiversity loss. In contrast, regenerative agriculture focuses on practices that build soil fertility and improve ecosystem functioning to mitigate climate change and increase biodiversity. This review assesses how the regenerative practice of crop diversification influences soil fertility and crop productivity, pest control, water quality and climate-change mitigation. I take an Ecosystem Services Approach to assessing crop diversification, which is a form of natural resource management that considers the relationship between human and environmental needs. These ecosystem services are analysed within the Australian context to determine both current issues and potential opportunities in Australian agriculture. This review reveals that current methods of agriculture in Australia could be improved, and crop diversification offers a key opportunity for helping Australia ensure food security under future climate change. Further research on interspecies interactions is required to help classify the specific crops that provide beneficial ecosystem services in Australia.</p> Alisha Fulton Copyright (c) 2022 Alisha Fulton https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/718 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Biodegradable Synthetic Polymers for Tissue Engineering: A Mini-review https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/801 <p>Tissue engineering is a revolutionary area of medicine, helping the body to heal large quantities of tissue loss that would otherwise require grafting procedures to promote recovery. Tissue engineering approaches reduce both donor site morbidity in graft procedures as well as the need for multiple surgeries. In this, biodegradable scaffolds are developed that hold cells; these scaffolds break down as new tissue forms and replaces the scaffold until full bodily function is regained. Synthetic polymers can offer tuneable mechanical and degradable characteristics alongside a low immunogenic response, which has made these materials a popular line of research as biodegradable scaffolds. This article seeks to summarise this field. Scaffold requirements, degradation factors and mechanisms, and common synthetic biodegradable polymers used in tissue scaffolding are covered, along with fabrication techniques. Specific examples of synthetic scaffolding polymers are explored for both bone and skeletal muscle to highlight the different desirable characteristics, hence the demands for each. Further research into new copolymer and scaffolding techniques will open new avenues to increased biocompatibility and clinical use, for which we recommend the creation of a comprehensive polymer database to store the vast library of synthetic polymer types and applications for future researchers.</p> Emily Hartley, Harrison Moon, Ana Neves Copyright (c) 2022 Emily Hartley, Harrison Moon, Ana Neves https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/801 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 ‘The Fog that it has Drawn upon Itself’ https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/791 <p class="Body">This paper will explore widespread criticism of the International Criminal Court (ICC), through the lens of its long-running investigation in Darfur, Sudan. Analysis of the Prosecutor’s reports on the Darfur investigation since 2005 reveals that the Court has often avoided engaging directly with its critics, and remains particularly reluctant to address accusations of internal structural bias. The ICC, in tandem with global media outlets, often characterises the Darfur conflict in simplistic terms, many of which originate in part from divisions that were introduced and sustained by colonial administrations. Although the ICC faces practical difficulties in enforcing its jurisdiction in Darfur, this paper argues that its problems of perception stem largely from the fact that it is the product of an international legal system whose normative home is the Global North. It is this systemic weakness that damages the ICC’s global legitimacy and prevents the courts from functioning as an effective and progressive arbiter of international law. This paper seeks to suggest a way forwards for the ICC in the form of a reciprocal system of jurisdiction with an African International Criminal Court, such as the fledgling ACJHR. A partnership on equal footing, with a mutual basis for resource-sharing and legal expertise, may be the most promising avenue towards ending global impunity.</p> Nicole Chiarion Casoni Copyright (c) 2022 Nicole Chiarion Casoni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/791 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Libraries, Piracy and the Grey Area In-Between: Free Digital Media during the COVID-19 Pandemic https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/799 <p>This article examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns on the consumption of free digital books, paying particular consideration to the financial advantages and disadvantages for the authors of those books and the libraries supplying them. It investigates trends in the consumption of digital books through both library and piracy sites, sourcing information from librarian reports and the anti-piracy company MUSO, which tracks visits to piracy sites. This research demonstrates that the tense library–publisher relationship is not stable and does not hold up under stress, emphasising the need for an appropriate solution to be developed. It also spotlights the impacts of COVID-19 on authors, some of the most vulnerable members of the publishing community.</p> Helen Yesberg Copyright (c) 2022 Helen Yesberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/799 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Comments on Intersectionality https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/758 <p><em>[The] struggle for liberation has significance only if it takes place within a feminist movement </em><em>that has as its fundamental goal the liberation of all people.</em></p> <p><em>(hooks</em><em>, 1981: 13)</em></p> <p>In the words of Audrey Lorde, ‘there is no such thing as a single-issue life’ (Black Past, 2012). Radical Black feminist literature has discussed the legal or otherwise non-legal disadvantages of living multiple-issue lives. Discrimination can no longer be considered from a single-axis view. Intersectionality, as a key concept, appreciates and discusses the very intersecting axes of discrimination. This contribution would argue that the contemporary rule of law, and otherwise non-legal structures, still fail to adequately recognise an intersectional approach. In so failing to apply the theorem in a systemic approach, there has been an obstruction of the encasement and appreciation of a diverse world population. This article addresses the growing lacuna of society in moving towards true freedom and equality.</p> Gervaise Alexis Savvias Copyright (c) 2022 Gervaise Alexis Savvias https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/758 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Amid Rebellion, Invasion and Revolution: Ottoman Centralisation in Lebanon, 1861–1915 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/790 <p>Times of strife dominate discussion on Lebanon, with the 2019 ‘revolution’ the latest to headline after the civil wars of 1860 and 1975–90. The reorganisation period after 1860, known as the <em>mutasarrifiyya</em>, was, however, remarkably peaceful under the Ottomans – although now mainly a forgotten time with scholars neglecting the sources and perspective of the Sultan’s reformers. Instead, nationalist historians used local chronicles and European records to present the <em>mutasarrifiyya</em> as nurturing a Lebanese nation. Likewise, later Western accounts, utilising similar material, argued that European contact prepared the Lebanese for independence. Therefore, the existing historiography follows a teleological bent in unearthing supposed signs for the eventual end of Ottoman hegemony.</p> <p>To counter this approach, I conducted research in the National Archives, supplemented with Ottoman sources referenced in secondary works and guided by theories on colonial centralisation to combat Orientalist narratives. I also looked for evidence of the antagonistic factors of foreign interference, nationalism and internal divides. As a result, I opine that Istanbul’s centralisation was effective to a great extent in precluding European influence and rendering Lebanon’s secession by no means certain. This paper should help reshape our understanding of Lebanese history by accentuating longer peaceful periods over sectarianism and foreign collusion.</p> Charles Ough Copyright (c) 2022 Charles Ough https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/790 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 From Baroque Spain to 1600s Amsterdam: Emergent Judaism in the Literary Works of Ex-New Christian Miguel de Barrios https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/892 <p>Writing from the Hispano-Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam, Miguel de Barrios (1635–1701) used literary forms of Catholic Spain to resist the erasure of Jewish identity in Iberian lands by Inquisition tribunals that prosecuted non-Catholic practices as heretical. Our analysis of sonnets and allegorical plays by Barrios shows how, through them, this converso, or New Christian, of Jewish lineage openly exalts Judaism as a divinely chosen faith. We also argue that, by writing diasporic texts firmly adherent to Baroque Spanish literary trends, Barrios broadens the reach of this literature to include the hybrid identity of former conversos living as Jews. We demonstrate how the poet expresses this identity by examining elements that influenced its expression, including his biography and the importance of Amsterdam as a centre of Sephardic, or Iberian Jewish, settlement, and how he reworks canonical genres of Spanish literature to privilege Judaism and Hispano-Portuguese conversos returned to Judaism.</p> Arielys Morffiz González, Fabi Zeller-M´árquez, Matthew Warshawsky Copyright (c) 2022 Arielys Morffiz González, Fabi Zeller-M´arquez, Matthew Warshawsky https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/892 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Coleridge-Taylor, Grieg and Beethoven – Chineke! Orchestra Concert, Warwick Arts Centre https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1159 <p>Review of the Chineke! Orchestra Concert at Warwick Arts Centre on 23rd February 2022.</p> Curtis Leung Copyright (c) 2022 Curtis Leung https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1159 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0100