Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention <p id="journal-tagline" class="lead">Reinvention is an online, peer-reviewed journal, dedicated to the publication of high-quality undergraduate student research. The journal welcomes academic articles from all disciplinary areas and all universities.</p> en-US <p class="p-Cl1" style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;" align="left">Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing through any medium of communication those illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. Authors are also responsible for adding these permissions to the acknowledgement footnote that precedes all other notes or crediting the source and copyright of photographs or figures in the accompanying captions.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal's policy is to ask authors to grant us the licence to publish their work, which gives us the exclusive right both to reproduce and/or distribute their article (including the abstract) in printed, electronic or any other medium, and in turn to authorise others (including Reproduction Rights Organisations such as the Copyright Licensing Agency and the Copyright Clearance Center) to do the same. In return the author(s) assert their Moral Right to be identified as the author, and we promise that we will respect their rights as the author(s). That is, we will make sure that their name(s) is/are always clearly associated with the article and, while they do allow us to make necessary editorial changes, we will not make any substantial alteration to their article without consulting them.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">Copyright remains with the author(s), however, the author(s) authorise us to act on their behalf to defend their copyright if anyone should infringe it, and to retain half of any damages awarded, after deducting our costs. The author(s) also retain the right to use their own article (provided they acknowledge the published original in standard bibliographic citation form) in the following ways, as long as they do not sell it or give it away in ways which would conflict directly with our interests. The author(s) is/are free to use their article for the internal educational or other purposes of their own institution or company; mounted on their own or their institution’s website; posted to free public servers of preprints and/or articles in their subject area; or in whole or in part, as the basis for their own further publications or spoken presentations.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">If you have any queries about copyright please contact the Journal Coordinator, Fiona O'Brien, at <a style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #30818a; text-decoration: none;" href="mailto:F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk">F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk</a></p> reinventionjournal@warwick.ac.uk (Reinvention Journal Team) reinventionjournal@warwick.ac.uk (Reinvention Journal Team) Sat, 30 Oct 2021 13:45:33 +0100 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Lyric-Based Classification of Music Genres Using Hand-Crafted Features https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/705 <p>The classification of music genres has been studied using various auditory, linguistic, and metadata features. Classification using linguistic features typically results in lower accuracy than classifiers built with auditory features. In this paper, we hand-craft features unused in previous lyrical classifiers such as rhyme density, readability, and the occurrence of profanity. We use these features to train traditional machine learning models for lyrical classification across nine popular music genres and compare their performance. The features that contribute the most towards this classification problem, and the genres that are easiest to predict, are identified. The experiments are conducted on a set of over 20,000 lyrics. A final accuracy of 56.14% was achieved when predicting across the nine genres, improving upon accuracies obtained in previous studies.</p> Curtis Thompson Copyright (c) 2021 Curtis Thompson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/705 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Cloak and Cruentation https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/714 <p class="Rbody">The Medieval epic poem the ‘Nibelungenlied’ makes use of two supernatural elements. There is a cloak that renders a character invisible, and the phenomenon of cruentation is trial by ordeal, which supposedly reveals who the murderer of a victim is. Although critics have stated the importance of these two elements to the narrative, the questions of how and why these elements are crucial remain under-analysed. This paper seeks to fill this gap in current research by assessing each supernatural phenomenon’s narrative function. I argue that their supernatural qualities are not the only aspects that link them, and that it is their power to alter what is (in)visible that makes them a catalyst for changing socio-cultural power dynamics in the text, ultimately leading to the tragic ending of the poem.</p> Cameron M Cross Copyright (c) 2021 Cameron M Cross https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/714 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Reappearing in Different Forms https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/749 <p>Siobhan Dowd’s novel <em>Bog Child</em> explores a legacy of self-sacrifice in Ireland. From a contemporary context, it explores the second hunger strike of Long Kesh prison in the 1980s and a fictionalised famine in the first century as a more ancient example. Using Kathleen Jamie’s notion of ‘surfacing’ and Oona Frawley’s ‘memory cruxes’ as launching points to explore <em>Bog Child</em>, this paper works to illuminate how these temporally distant events are intricately connected through an extended history of self-sacrifice and hunger in Ireland. In the process, it also explores how, in that extended history, gendered notions have crept in, how they are reinforced and how they can be challenged. <em>Bog Child </em>is at its core a novel about the repetition of history, and particularly of historical cultural trauma, but one that ultimately works to offer a compassionate end to this repetition, as the paper will conclude.</p> Rory Bines-Morris Copyright (c) 2021 Rory Bines-Morris https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/749 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Effects of Anthropogenic Climate Change on the Occurrence of Supercellular Tornadoes in the USA https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/716 <p>The United States of America (USA) experiences the most tornadoes of any nation in the world, with these extreme weather events causing many deaths and billions of dollars of damage each year. With the recent warming of the climate due to human activity, it is likely that the occurrence of USA tornadoes will be affected. However, exactly how the spatial and temporal distribution of tornadoes in the USA will be affected by climate change is still an area of active research. The trends in the literature show that as the climate has warmed, there has been an observed clustering of USA tornadoes onto fewer, more active tornado days, as well as an eastward movement of the average centre of USA tornado activity. This review shows that these observed changes could be explained by shifts in environmental parameters related to tornado formation due to anthropogenic climate change. This research will allow for better tornado preparedness and prediction in tornado-affected areas as the climate warms. Future research may focus on more precisely modelling the impacts of global warming on USA tornado occurrence by using higher-resolution climate models.</p> Sam Inskip Copyright (c) 2021 Sam Inskip https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/716 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0100 From Cathartic ‘Brain Tingles’ to Scratching Chalkboard Sensations https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/743 <p class="Rbody">ASMR is a sensory-perceptual experience in which specific audio-visual or haptic stimuli reliably trigger electro-static-like ‘brain tingles’ extending peripherally from the back of the scalp. While generally an under-studied phenomenon, research is beginning to identify potential therapeutic benefits of immersing in ASMR-content, supported by anecdotal accounts from active online communities. The present mixed-methods online study aimed to explore the phenomenological aspects of ASMR and its potential therapeutic effects. A total of 224 participants watched ASMR-videos and completed scales measuring ASMR response and affect. Participants then completed four open-ended questions about their ASMR experience and use. In line with our hypotheses, quantitative results suggested that participants who experienced ASMR demonstrated significantly higher positive affect and significantly lower negative affect compared to those who did not (or were unsure about whether they did) experience ASMR. The pleasurability and intensity of ASMR also positively correlated with measures of positive affect, and negatively with measures of negative affect. Thematic analysis identified great phenomenological variability in perceived pleasurability and intensity of ASMR experience among individuals as a super-theme present across themes (Psychological, Physical and Social dimensions). Based on these findings, a multi-dimensional model for characterising ASMR is proposed, providing clear opportunities for future research.</p> Anna Lindfors, Dr Heather Branigan Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Lindfors, Dr Heather Branigan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/743 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Reinvention: Patterns in Uncertainty https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/923 Auni Siukosaari Copyright (c) 2021 Auni Siukosaari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/923 Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0100