Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention <p id="journal-tagline" class="lead"><strong>New Issue Out Now!</strong><br />Reinvention is an online, peer-reviewed journal, dedicated to the publication of high-quality undergraduate student research. The journal welcomes academic articles from all disciplinary areas and all universities.</p> en-US <p class="p-Cl1" style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;" align="left">Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing through any medium of communication those illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. Authors are also responsible for adding these permissions to the acknowledgement footnote that precedes all other notes or crediting the source and copyright of photographs or figures in the accompanying captions.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal's policy is to ask authors to grant us the licence to publish their work, which gives us the exclusive right both to reproduce and/or distribute their article (including the abstract) in printed, electronic or any other medium, and in turn to authorise others (including Reproduction Rights Organisations such as the Copyright Licensing Agency and the Copyright Clearance Center) to do the same. In return the author(s) assert their Moral Right to be identified as the author, and we promise that we will respect their rights as the author(s). That is, we will make sure that their name(s) is/are always clearly associated with the article and, while they do allow us to make necessary editorial changes, we will not make any substantial alteration to their article without consulting them.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">Copyright remains with the author(s), however, the author(s) authorise us to act on their behalf to defend their copyright if anyone should infringe it, and to retain half of any damages awarded, after deducting our costs. The author(s) also retain the right to use their own article (provided they acknowledge the published original in standard bibliographic citation form) in the following ways, as long as they do not sell it or give it away in ways which would conflict directly with our interests. The author(s) is/are free to use their article for the internal educational or other purposes of their own institution or company; mounted on their own or their institution’s website; posted to free public servers of preprints and/or articles in their subject area; or in whole or in part, as the basis for their own further publications or spoken presentations.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">If you have any queries about copyright please contact the Journal Coordinator, Fiona O'Brien, at <a style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #30818a; text-decoration: none;" href="mailto:F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk">F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk</a></p> reinventionjournal@warwick.ac.uk (Reinvention Journal Team) reinventionjournal@warwick.ac.uk (Reinvention Journal Team) Mon, 31 Oct 2022 17:33:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Sovereignty or Security? Maintaining Peace and The Ambivalent Relationship Between Europe and Washington, 1945–1991 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/895 <p>Among historians, there has been a recurring debate on whether European states lost their de facto sovereignty during the Cold War (1945–1991). While Orthodox Cold War historians claimed that the Europeans were nothing more than chess pieces of the two opposing superpowers, others argued that the continental nations retained autonomy and contributed significantly to the war effort. In response to the academic discussion, this article aims to clarify whether Western European states traded their sovereignty for nuclear and diplomatic protection from the USA. By comparing the policies adopted by Washington and the Europeans – namely the British and French, respectively – I attempt to elucidate the scale of their disagreements and provide a clear analysis of the issue at hand. Upon research, the related literature and first-hand historical sources have demonstrated that: (1) Britain and France played an essential role in initiating the Cold War; (2) Western European states carried out foreign policies that were not in line with Kissinger’s direction during the 1960s and 1970s; (3) Transatlantic diplomatic differences remained in certain policy directions during the 1980s and early 1990s. In general, despite being close strategic allies of Washington, the European states retained their decision-making power.</p> Kalos Lau Copyright (c) 2022 Kalos Lau https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/895 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Does Taxing Mobile Money Harm the Poor: Evidence From the 10 Per Cent Excise Fee Introduction in Kenya https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/845 <p>Mobile money has been a key innovation in Africa that has increased the financial resilience of vulnerable households by providing an easy way to send and receive remittances. While recent literature has focused on the link between mobile money and its function as a social protection mechanism for the vulnerable population, less is known about the extent to which the costs of using the service affect the transaction behaviour of these people. By exploiting anatural experiment in the form of an excise fee that was imposed on mobile-money transactions in Kenya, this paper estimates the differential effect of a price hike in mobile-money transaction fees on transaction behaviour of households with a daily income below 1.25 USD and households above this threshold. The study finds that households with an income below 1.25 USD reduced their monthly mobile-money transactions volume by 25 per cent compared to households above this threshold. Additionally, the paper finds suggestive evidence that the tax also led to a relative reduction in mobile-money remittances received by households below an income of 1.25 USD. The loss in received remittances was not substituted by an increase in remittances sent by cash or in-kind.</p> Kai Foerster Copyright (c) 2022 Kai Foerster https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/845 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Valerie and Her Week of Wonders: Reawakening Czech Cultural Heritage Through the Psychoanalysis of New Wave Surrealism https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/905 <p>By 1960, Freudian psychoanalysis was commonplace across Europe. Central to this were the concepts of the id, ego and superego – forces pertinent at both an individual and societal level. In an unhealthy subject, according to Freud, these three psychological components fall out of an ideal dynamic balance and must be restored by an intervening external agent. Freud’s theories particularly influenced art – especially the surrealism of the Czech New Wave film movement, which sought to restore the ideal psychological balance by stimulating radical reorganisations of society. A prime example of this is Jaromil Jireš’s film <em>Valerie and Her Week of Wonders </em>(1970), which aimed to rebalance the unstable Czech social dynamic by provoking the audience to reconnect with their historic cultural values and synthesise these with the goals of Communism. This article analyses three key sequences that exemplify this objective: the first illustrates how Valerie (surrogate for the ego) initially vacillates, but ultimately aligns herself with symbols of Czech heritage (representing the id). The second sequence shows Valerie’s ill-fated appeasement strategy of completely aligning with the film’s antagonist (superego). The final sequence is a culmination of these themes, posing possibilities for a new Czech future created by the now activated viewer.</p> Toby Phipps Copyright (c) 2022 Toby Phipps https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/905 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Decodings? Becoming-Ungenderable in Online Spaces https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/900 <p>The online self is a new kind of body, producing new kinds of affects and offering new opportunities for self-expression. This paper draws on the ontological framework developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their seminal work <em>Capitalism and Schizophrenia </em>(1983; 1987) to explore the operation of gender in digital space. The constitution of the (gendered) self online is understood as a deliberate, measured act, allowing users to curate their identities in ways more fully expressive of their desires than is possible offline. Two possibilities thus emerge: the imposition of gendered subjectivities may be resisted – and perhaps escaped altogether – or the masculine/feminine binary may be further entrenched through the visual medium. In either case, the Internet Age is characterised by more dynamic, creative and intense modes of gender politics.</p> Emerson Hurley Copyright (c) 2022 Emerson Hurley https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/900 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Preventing Cancer with Turmeric: The Whole is Better than the Sum of its Parts https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/939 <p>There is growing interest in the use of natural compounds such as phytochemicals in medicine. Turmeric is known to possess many health benefits and has been used for centuries for culinary and traditional uses. Its most potent phytochemical, curcumin, has been subject to extensive research and<br />exhibits biological activities, including anti-cancer activities. However, it has not been approved for therapeutic use due to poor bioavailability. Recently, efforts have turned to improving its bioavailability, such as the use of adjuvant phytochemicals. Turmeric contains a variety of phytochemicals, many of which also possess anti-cancer activities themselves. In this review, the<br />evidence for the superior bioavailability and chemopreventative activities of turmeric compared to curcumin alone are discussed, and mechanisms that may underlie these observations are highlighted. More research should be done to uncover the interactions of the phytochemicals within turmeric. Most research has focused on the use of curcumin and other phytochemicals as potential adjuvants in cancer treatment. However, a large proportion of cancers, particularly of the digestive system, are preventable, so the current review focuses on the chemopreventative potential of the phytochemicals discussed. Ultimately, consumption of turmeric and other foods rich in phytochemicals should be encouraged to reduce the incidence of cancer.</p> Megan Bowers Copyright (c) 2022 Megan Bowers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/939 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reinvention: Research Through a Cultural Lens https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1242 Shreya Sridharan Copyright (c) 2022 Shreya Sridharan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1242 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Isabel Wilkerson (2020), Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1243 <p>Book review of <em>Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents </em>by Isabel Wilkerson (2020).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sanika Savdekar Copyright (c) 2022 Sanika Savdekar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/1243 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Post-COVID Challenges for Incoming and Returning International Students https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/948 <p>The article aims to highlight the unique challenges faced by international students who were pursuing education abroad during the COVID-19 pandemic. During this period, the two main obstacles faced by international students were acculturative stress due to lack of access to social support, and economic stress associated with job uncertainty. A literature review and evaluation of past government reports and news articles were used to identify the common challenges faced and to understand the importance of the experiences to inform application-based strategies in order to better support international students. The literature review indicates that developing programmes that allow international students to connect with current students from the same national/cultural background while also encouraging programmes or orientations that discuss issues specific to international students can provide a solid foundation that allows the students to explore their host country confidently. Furthermore, developing a dedicated careers team trained to understand the obstacles that international students face in seeking employment in the host country while also encouraging previous international students to share their insights and journeys can allow for students to initiate networking and also prepare to navigate the job market.</p> Aliya Pal Copyright (c) 2022 Aliya Pal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/948 Mon, 31 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000