Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention <p id="journal-tagline" class="lead">Reinvention is an online, peer-reviewed journal, dedicated to the publication of high-quality undergraduate student research. The journal welcomes academic articles from all disciplinary areas and all universities.</p> Institute for Advanced Teaching and Learning, University of Warwick en-US Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research 1755-7429 <p class="p-Cl1" style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;" align="left">Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing through any medium of communication those illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. Authors are also responsible for adding these permissions to the acknowledgement footnote that precedes all other notes or crediting the source and copyright of photographs or figures in the accompanying captions.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal's policy is to ask authors to grant us the licence to publish their work, which gives us the exclusive right both to reproduce and/or distribute their article (including the abstract) in printed, electronic or any other medium, and in turn to authorise others (including Reproduction Rights Organisations such as the Copyright Licensing Agency and the Copyright Clearance Center) to do the same. In return the author(s) assert their Moral Right to be identified as the author, and we promise that we will respect their rights as the author(s). That is, we will make sure that their name(s) is/are always clearly associated with the article and, while they do allow us to make necessary editorial changes, we will not make any substantial alteration to their article without consulting them.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">Copyright remains with the author(s), however, the author(s) authorise us to act on their behalf to defend their copyright if anyone should infringe it, and to retain half of any damages awarded, after deducting our costs. The author(s) also retain the right to use their own article (provided they acknowledge the published original in standard bibliographic citation form) in the following ways, as long as they do not sell it or give it away in ways which would conflict directly with our interests. The author(s) is/are free to use their article for the internal educational or other purposes of their own institution or company; mounted on their own or their institution’s website; posted to free public servers of preprints and/or articles in their subject area; or in whole or in part, as the basis for their own further publications or spoken presentations.</p> <p style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #333333; font-family: Lato,&amp;quot; helvetica neue&amp;quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif; font-size: 16px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-bottom: 16px; margin-top: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">If you have any queries about copyright please contact the Journal Coordinator, Fiona O'Brien, at <a style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box; color: #30818a; text-decoration: none;" href="mailto:F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk">F.O-Brien@warwick.ac.uk</a></p> Between two fires https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/541 <p>In recent years, increased crackdowns on and legal persecution of LGBTQ+ rights in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have occurred as a result of the renewed use of colonial laws against ‘sexual deviance’ and ‘debauchery’. Sexual politics have emerged as a site of political domination in part as a result of financial and political crises in the region. This paper explores the various challenges faced by LGBTQ+ advocates in the MENA in the twenty-first century. The paper argues that advocates can overcome these challenges by separating their message from both International LGBTQ+ groups and domestic anti-LGBTQ+ dialogues, which converge in the view that LGBTQ+ identity and Arab cultural identity are permanently, inherently opposed. Using a Postcolonial International Relations framework and critical cultural theory, this paper will investigate the complex web of oppressions these advocates face. Two previously unexplored contemporary examples in Egypt and Lebanon will be investigated, focusing on advocates’ alliance-building capabilities and creation of a <em>war of position</em>. Using a deductive approach, the paper will conclude that LGBTQ+ advocates are able to overcome these challenges. The theoretical framework is therefore a useful tool in the study of modern international relations and culture.</p> Jenifer Rose Elmslie Copyright (c) 2020 Jenifer Rose Elmslie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.541 Constructivism and Determinism https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/640 <p>A review of various approaches to voice feminisation for transgender women reveals two conflicting philosophies concerning voice and gender identity: determinism and constructivism. While the determinist philosophy equates sex with gender and posits that physiology determines vocal output, the constructivist philosophy views gender and vocal differences as more dependent on socio-cultural factors. Much of past research has relied on the deterministic perspective to define the voice as a set of masculine or feminine acoustic measures. This binary categorisation poses a challenge for adult transgender women who must overcome significant laryngeal changes attributed to puberty to modify their voices. Certain studies indicate voice feminisation interventions are more effective when they incorporate the self-perceived identities of transgender women into treatment strategies instead of relying solely on acoustic voice measures to label a voice as either masculine or feminine. Further research suggests that social factors – including class, ethnicity and upbringing – impact vocalisation. In light of this evidence, this paper acknowledges the need for more holistic treatments of the voice through a better integration of the constructivist perspective into voice feminisation practices. In certain reports of patient outcomes, transgender women who rate their voice as more feminine are also perceived as such by listeners. This finding demonstrates the efficacy of a patient-centred approach, which is best accomplished through a synergistic application of both determinist and constructivist philosophies to voice modification. By doing so, therapeutic interventions will likely be more effective at alleviating incongruences between the voice and self-identity for transgender women.</p> Cody Ritz Copyright (c) 2020 Cody Ritz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.640 Public Perceptions on Using Virtual Reality and Mobile Apps in Anxiety Treatment: A cross sectional analysis https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/625 <p>New technologies such as virtual reality (VR) and mobile apps are increasingly being developed and trialled therapeutically to help treat anxiety disorders. Despite this increasing market, there is little research on how the public perceive the incorporation of these innovative technologies in anxiety treatment. This study aimed to describe knowledge, awareness and perceptions of VR and mobile apps for the treatment of anxiety. To do this, a survey was disseminated to those aged 18 to 35 with no current or previous mental illness via social media and poster advertisements, and 57 individuals participated. Results demonstrated that most individuals had limited knowledge on the use of VR and mobile apps in mental health, but overall demonstrated positive perceptions and high optimism regarding its potential use. Neither treatment modality was perceived as being as effective as standard treatment; however, participants were willing to use either modality if recommended by a therapist and use both in conjunction with standard treatment. Participants demonstrated a willingness to use a mobile app as a first point of contact. These findings have implications for the way in which these technologies are rolled out to the public.</p> Rebecca Kirkham Caitlin Batten Copyright (c) 2020 Rebecca Kirkham, Ms, Caitlin Batten, Ms https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.625 Knowledge and Habits Towards Antibiotic Use and Resistance of Public University Students in Nisava Region – Southern Serbia https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/685 <p><strong>Antibiotic resistance</strong> has become a serious threat to <strong>global health</strong>. This study aimed to assess knowledge and habits surrounding the use of <strong>antibiotics</strong> and antibiotic resistance of university students residing in urban areas compared to those in rural areas of Nisava region, Serbia. Data was gathered using an online survey and tested for statistical differences using the Chi-squared test. A total of 380 students participated with a response rate of 94.7 per cent. Of this, 84.4 per cent of students correctly identified antibiotics as being effective against bacteria and distinguished well between antibiotics and other types of medicines. However, 31.4 per cent believe that antibiotics help with most diseases, not just bacteria-related illnesses. While only 12.5 per cent said they believed that therapy can be interrupted when the symptoms fade, a total of 45.8% admitted to premature treatment interruption. As many as 59.7 per cent reported having bought antibiotics without a prescription, and a significant portion of 62.5 per cent reported having taken antibiotics for travel emergencies. There was no statistically significant difference related to the domicile of the students (p&gt;0.05). Students demonstrated relatively acceptable knowledge on antibiotics use and antibacterial resistance – which is not reflected in their practice of using antibiotics. Campaigns are needed to promote awareness on antibiotic resistance as students’ habits are not satisfactory.</p> Nemanja Kutlesic Aleksandra Jovanovic Copyright (c) 2020 Nemanja Kutlesic, Aleksandra Jovanovic https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.685 Post-Exercise Hot-Water Immersion Promotes Heat-Acclimation Responses in Endurance Athletes and Recreational Athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/661 <p>The fundamental aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of post-exercise hot-water immersion as a method of eliciting heat-acclimation responses. The secondary aim was to identify if an intervention period of 5 to 9 days of post-exercise hot-water immersion had any effect on time-trial finishing times in hot environmental conditions. Four databases were used along with two academic search engines to search for studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria. In order to fulfil the inclusion criteria, studies had to be either randomised-control trials or mixed-method design in nature, focusing on hot-water immersion or heat acclimation, with the full text publicly available. Three repeated-measures design studies, two randomised-control trials and one randomised cross-over design study were included. Statistical analysis took place by calculating effect sizes comparing pre- and post-intervention testing for all of the main outcome measures. The main outcome measures were time to complete a predetermined treadmill-based time trial, during-exercise heart rate and post-exercise heart rate, rectal temperature, physiological strain index and thermal sensation.</p> <p>Once the effect sizes had been calculated, they were graphically represented using forest plots heterogeneity tests in Meta-Essentials Excel software package.</p> <p>The results of the meta-analysis indicate that a 5- to 9-day protocol of post-exercise hot-water immersion reduces: time taken to complete a treadmill-based time trial, heart rate (-9 BPM ± 1.3), rectal temperature (-0.38 ± 0.03 °C). Additionally, sweat rate increased by 0.09 litres. Changes in ratings of perceived exertion, physiological heat strain index and thermal sensation were considered statistically significant. There was no difference between endurance-trained and recreationally trained individuals in relation to changes in ratings of perceived exertion as a result of heat training. However, the time delay between when exercise was conducted and when hot-water immersion occurred significantly impacted measures of thermal sensation.</p> Jack Paul Martin Copyright (c) 2020 Jack Paul Martin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.661 Guest House For Young Widows - Among the Women of ISIS https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/717 Helen Stenger Alicja Lysik Copyright (c) 2020 Helen Stenger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.717 Pandemic objects: Photograph https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/733 <p>None.</p> Sarah Sullivan Copyright (c) 2020 Sarah Sullivan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.733 Exhibition Review: Pandemic Objects: TicToc https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/738 <p>None.</p> Alice Kunjumon Copyright (c) 2020 Alice Kunjumon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.738 Reinvention: Uniting the world https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/739 <p>None.</p> Polina Zelmanova Copyright (c) 2020 Polina Zelmanova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.739 Reflections of Reinvention in Postgraduate Study https://reinventionjournal.org/index.php/reinvention/article/view/723 <p>None needed.</p> Peter Halat Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Halat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 13 2 10.31273/reinvention.v13i2.723