Reinvention: an International Journal of Undergraduate Research 2023-10-31T20:37:21+00:00 Reinvention Journal Team Open Journal Systems <p id="journal-tagline" class="lead"><strong>New Issue Out Now!</strong><br />Reinvention is an online, peer-reviewed journal, dedicated to the publication of high-quality undergraduate student research. The journal welcomes academic articles from all disciplinary areas and all universities.</p> Beyond Capitalism: Imagining Life After Ruin 2022-09-13T17:40:35+01:00 Molly Young <p>This article approaches the climate crisis as a crisis of imagination, building upon post-capitalist thought and Mark Fisher’s ‘capitalist realism’ to outline a framework for imagining beyond the capitalist present. Beginning with Maroš Krivý’s examination of Estonian wastelands and adjacent nationalism, the article argues that a society’s identity and imagination depend upon its relationship with history. Modern-day ruins become a conceptual space for situating ‘precarity’ in the present, entangling humans with extra-human nature and dismantling perceived economic homogeneity under capitalism. Anna Tsing’s ethnographic study of Open Ticket Oregon underpins its conclusions, as do Roy Scranton’s notions of death and rebirth. This article sits alongside emerging ‘degrowth’ and ‘prefigurative’ discourses to critique certain post-capitalist perspectives failing to provide alternatives or give space to economic diversity. Ultimately, it valorises ‘pericapitalist’ spaces as an intermediary step between present-day capitalism and a future beyond ruin.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Molly Young How Do We Know When We Achieve Land Degradation Neutrality in Forests? A Systematic Review 2022-09-02T06:55:11+01:00 Chelsea Rabl Orlando Buttie Tayah Green Elise Allibon <p>This systematic review develops a comprehensive understanding of how land degradation is measured with respect to forests, and what qualitative and quantitative methods are being utilised in the pursuit of land degradation neutrality (LDN) generally. Scopus and Environmental Abstracts (EVA) databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies from 1998–2021 using key search terms including ‘land degradation neutrality’, ‘soil’ and ‘forest’. Of the 53 included studies, most articles (n = 25) are experimental reports, and the next most common classification (n = 14) is literature reviews. Studies tended to be longitudinal (mean length of 15.4 years) and Eurasia-centric. Almost all extant research focuses on the indicators rather than the drivers of land degradation. Choosing indicators to measure remains contentious; however, most research uses those prescribed by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: land cover, net primary productivity and soil organic carbon. Despite this convergence around which indicators to monitor, there is no standardisation in the methods used to do so. Therefore, no meaningful comparison between countries or even studies can be made. This lack of standardisation and bias towards indicators instead of drivers is important because, under the current paradigm, land managers seeking to prevent or offset forest degradation cannot do so with any certainty. Until these issues are addressed, it will be impossible to track progress towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 15.3 for global LDN, and large-scale conservation work in this area is based on guesswork. How will we know when we achieve LDN in forests, globally? Based on current research, we will not. Future research must seek standardised ways to quantify land degradation based on its drivers: erosion, urbanisation and human activity, drought and desertification, and pollution.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Chelsea Rabl, Orlando Buttie, Tayah Green, Elise Allibon Are Physical Activity Levels in Childhood Associated with Future Mental Health Outcomes? Longitudinal Analysis Using Millennium Cohort Study Data 2022-01-04T14:43:02+00:00 Ieva Karvelyte <p>The rising prevalence of mental health conditions among children and young adults accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic emphasises the urgent need to address this issue effectively. A potential avenue for early diagnosis lies in physical activity patterns as individuals with mental health conditions often move less than the general population. This paper utilises Millennium Cohort Study data to investigate the relationship between childhood physical movement patterns, and mental distress and wellbeing outcomes in late adolescence. By controlling for a range of factors of both cohort members and their parents, the study employs well-adjusted logistic and linear regressions to assess the hypothesis. Objective physical movement data is collected with accelerometers, while mental distress is measured using the Kessler K6 scale and mental wellbeing using the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. The findings of the study suggest no significant association between raw physical movement and mental distress; however, there is suggestive evidence of a weak positive association with mental wellbeing. In addition, the study found that lower exercise levels at age 7 were associated with an increased likelihood of mental distress at age 17, highlighting the potential impact of exercise habits on mental health in adolescence. Overall, these findings suggest that raw physical activity data may be a better predictor of specific mental health outcomes, such as those assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in similar studies. The paper offers recommendations for future research – such as using self-reported questionnaires to contextualise quantitative physical movement data – and a more comprehensive analysis of the cognitive and mental implications.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ieva Karvelyte The Impact of Exam Stress on the Relationship Between Autistic Traits and Disordered-Eating Attitudes in a Non-clinical Population 2021-01-18T11:47:49+00:00 Naomi Law <p>Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with anorexia nervosa display elevated autistic traits in comparison to individuals who do not have the disorder. However, it remains unknown as to whether this relationship is a stable trait of individuals or if it is caused by a psychological or physical state. This study investigated the state vs trait nature of the relationship between disordered eating and autistic traits in a non-clinical sample, while additionally exploring the ability of cognitive inflexibility to predict this relationship. Thirty-four undergraduate students from the University of St Andrews completed questionnaires regarding their affect, disordered-eating attitudes and autistic traits alongside a measure of set-shifting ability in the Brixton Spatial Anticipation test during a period of examination stress and a period of no stress. It was revealed that on both occasions, individuals who scored higher on a test of disordered-eating attitudes also scored higher on a test measuring autistic traits. This relationship was stronger when participants were stressed. Autistic traits were also found to significantly predict a change in eating attitudes between a stress-induced state and pre-existing trait conditions. Inflexibility, as reflected by Brixton scores, did not appear to relate to either measure. These results indicate that slightly elevated autistic traits in those exhibiting disordered-eating attitudes may be state-dependent, as opposed to reflecting the engrained traits of the individual. Findings are discussed in relation to future research replicating the study with a larger sample and implications for the diagnosis and treatment of anorexia.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Naomi Law Effects of Pedagogical Questioning on Singaporean Young Children’s Learning of Novel Categories 2022-10-07T16:21:01+01:00 Yun Hui Chwee <p>There has been a longstanding debate about the advantages and disadvantages of two polarities of teaching methods: direct instruction and discovery learning. Research has shown that questioning might be a viable pedagogical method that combines the advantages of both. When pre-schoolers in the US explored a novel toy with multiple hidden functions, pedagogical questions – questions asked by a knowledgeable teacher who aims to guide children towards learning – have been shown to facilitate more learning and exploration compared to direct instruction or questions asked by a naïve confederate. The current study investigated whether these effects can be observed in Singaporean children’s learning of novel categories. A total of 30 children aged 5–7 (<em>M</em> = 6.51, <em>SD</em> = 0.45) were recruited and randomly assigned to four conditions. In all conditions, children were asked to find out the rule for categorising two types of novel robots by exploring exemplars. Before children started exploring, a hint was given either by a teacher in the form of a direct instruction, by the teacher through a question, by a confederate through a question, or not given. We then measured how much the children explored the exemplars and whether they categorised new cards and identified the rules correctly. Results showed no significant difference between any of the four conditions, which may be due to the small sample size. If a larger sample can confirm the research hypotheses, it will have implications on teachers’ choice of pedagogical methods in early childhood education.</p> 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yun Hui Chwee COVID-19 and The International Political Economy of Everyday Life: An Introduction to the Special Issue 2023-06-29T15:52:07+01:00 James Brassett Tom Chodor Juanita Elias Samanthi Gunawardana Ruben Kremers Georgios Nikolaidis Lena Rethel Ben Richardson 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 James Brassett, Tom Chodor, Juanita Elias, Samanthi Gunawardana, Ruben Kremers, Georgios Nikolaidis, Lena Rethel, Ben Richardson Vaccine Diplomacy: How China and the USA Sought to Expand Their Influence in East and Southeast Asia 2023-06-29T15:53:24+01:00 Guanging Chen Reece Peter Jerome 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Guanging Chen, Reece Peter Jerome Mask Wearing: How Can Comparative Political and Economic Factors Account for Differing Rates of COVID-19 Compliance Between Countries? 2023-06-29T15:46:29+01:00 Catalina Bastianelli Sam Gibson 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Catalina Bastianelli, Sam Gibson Lockdown: COVID-19, State Capacity and Neoliberalism 2023-06-29T15:59:41+01:00 Jacques Urquhard Eve Williams 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jacques Urquhard, Eve Williams Digital Exclusion: Exploring the Impact of COVID-19 Policies on Elderly Mobility Via a Comparative Study of Australia and China 2023-06-29T15:58:27+01:00 Miriam Hoskin Yiran Huang 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Miriam Hoskin, Yiran Huang Military Language: How Was the Language Used by Leaders During the COVID-19 Pandemic Manifested in Their Crisis Management Strategies? 2023-06-29T15:50:07+01:00 Ella Bindley Joseph Earnshaw 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ella Bindley, Joseph Earnshaw Identity: Narratives of Heroes, Villains and Victims 2023-06-29T15:56:45+01:00 Kleopatra Efstathiou Griffin Rohleder 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kleopatra Efstathiou, Griffin Rohleder Mobile Phones: Sick of Your Phone yet? The Infectiousness of Mobile Phone Usage During the Pandemic and the Generational Divide 2023-06-30T10:13:24+01:00 Pei Yi Chin Tijana Kovac 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pei Yi Chin, Tijana Kovac TikTok: Platform Capitalism and Prosumer Culture 2023-06-30T10:18:51+01:00 Nadège Studeny Jazir Mohammed 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nadège Studeny, Jazir Mohammed Coffins: What Contributes to the Unethical Nature of the Global Coffin Supply Chain? 2023-06-30T10:26:18+01:00 Temiloluwa Taiwo Olaojo Isabelle Zhu-Maguire 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Temiloluwa Taiwo Olaojo, Isabelle Zhu-Maguire Mental Health: Is Pandemic Stress Exclusive to the Rich? 2023-06-30T10:17:25+01:00 Ayu Larasati Tom Zundel 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ayu Larasati, Tom Zundel Precarity: How Did The Pandemic Reshape The Employment Landscape? 2023-06-30T10:14:41+01:00 Oliver Hosking Marina Yáñez Luque 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Oliver Hosking, Marina Yáñez Luque Job (In)Security: Why Did More People Feel Insecure About Their Jobs During the COVID-19 Pandemic? 2023-06-29T15:55:02+01:00 William Dickins Xinwen Zhang 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 William Dickins, Nicole Zhang Regrowth and Reimagination: Seeking Solutions Through Research 2023-10-30T17:07:57+00:00 Molly Gardiner Yit Wong 2023-10-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Molly Gardiner, Yit Wong