Ageing is one of the most critical risk factors in the development of age-related disease. In particular, it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease with age-related changes to the heart demonstrating hypertrophy, reduced elasticity and reduced diastolic function. The dietary implementation of the polyamine spermidine has been shown to extend lifespan in a number of model organisms such as mice, rats, yeast, worms, flies and mammals, thought primarily to be due to its cardioprotective effects. Various studies have demonstrated the ability of spermidine to reduce blood pressure, delay hypertrophy and increase elasticity of cardiac muscle. Spermidine is a polyamine that is naturally abundant in a number of foods such as aged cheese, fermented soybean and wheatgerm, making it a viable compound to research its impact on longevity through dietary interventions. Spermidine has the ability to promote autophagy in cardiac muscle along with mitophagy. Autophagy is a vital process for the recycling of dysfunctional and potentially harmful cellular components which can prevent interruptions in the homeostatic environment and prevent disease. In light of the cardioprotective effects seen through spermidine supplementation in various models, it is a promising candidate for further research into treatments for age-related cardiac decline.
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